a

> >

-

*.

itera, megan —4 “£ i x, 7. . GaN mas asa ~~ % > ~ a

ee

a

ne ee

wt

<-

> “. ; 4 6 o4- te ee, I Gee E - 4 ‘ee. "30, >, —<+~< . - ~ £ _— - we

- $ . a 34 x - * t4 ae . . oe i. >. ta

ee ewe ee A Ae a aca ~ ——— Z abe tei tne GF tet. > am eee ome ae > - (a ¢ - . sd - o » *. a ~ pein

< ; > “> . \ ~“. Se : : Cate wnat at ae Mes om oY - . . i : Sep es os a en . 7a ae - ieee mar aS tt al »

ets

NN

TOT, seseidl

re

fF ore % ae

t.

~~

on Sea? % bee —_ ° : A LEON A Oe mee BR ee tee me ee mem Fw we * mY i f-

4 Lae Wert tegg eee iy pe

Ped

ie oP ~

oe. 7 - * ee om, 72, We

MIL etre Tp Ppivivis ieee aes

Se ea ey ) ~ WE 3 ee ay Rh ant Fa Ne eee eae)

)

HAE a 43747: rs F

x9! iy i i

FA ui F ae

_s ate SX

> ~~

~*, . aot ee ER

we ¥ * we whe

oe

. Y

Sue

ary fy ie RiLy tf. j iss LAS et) AY) bad Care # rs

Se PA . eG

*

a

ef fe

Bes Sete Dew SAA

i »* f ek 53 } ; te seid gad ey Plotters Topcod thay o~ ] TEAS PAT EEL RATES © res Shera Se By, fond ty Ms 47s 4 r tha “?, it ; / 7 rit ie, -Ce Lbaeey rt if oe aay +3 (4 A f

NaF 40 ta 4 7

f,

=. "6, 2ee ae» nf *,

=

} : 6: : : fy by : : CEPR AT? Net te : Rae Pe Y, Ad teater lacs ede ys ites « pore eae. 9 fre tAg ats lel ee POPPA PERS ER TAA Eo ie FEED Pe By Als i} OTs QRl eee; ‘. z fret if FAs #42 i Ge eis. ! fe ef) his "* Suey ‘4 ye , yas sf - feat 4 ty fe J eH Fat Wow. . Tiers Te ty cy F£595 FAs a het Pete 7 s ; ; a5 HAT pos att +3 a bees pe PPT eke : if Hf BAY ate ; ites y Ft ‘fy fisipgecarlss Celepids ot

aor

#3

. SN WS

eps Vee eh om. + ae OY

ea ee a

$ hes BAL taf it} 4 aif fs ate

; 3

. as “ees a

) at

? wife

ear

ens tee Come

~ ore

~ a 2a ay

pote i+ A ae

ite

us . AL. -

wee, - > .

bese hte

Hunrnts PA Tee Ate if He eet EL

7 DA BEG

f tf ae 374

. ip a ep Af)

Ma

ar

OR

my TKN

Lng Yom oy we mer

Hep 093 Po : Pick

He. ie Vi: Sees Pen L/

2

. ~ *

. ose i~

a oy

wa ' Pare wd

Senha te

=? La

Kens ea day ~—*

“/: nae atte

Le eae

20%

i238, gf 3 : ee Ps E ro ihe Bs Apevia ates! Te / Pte UE Heit , ss 2 Fed! SL AO . ; 3: $F; : x y, , ped iy Pe i 93

bY 3

eer ee

Pie hye ies tb

is Loe : ee o s

Sacrsaeeaee ee Y ie . —~ to. f Pie re jae, e Sere) ey ee

eae

a2. 9" eS

ai

,

Na - ones,

rereses * we ~*~

on, « * +, see : 7 eo Dewe

or

Sead

oa Pere? fla Sby

ee Se ong! - m i 2

Sr bad :

a -

~~

4

oo

ore. hers

\-

iy 6 oe *.

—_ ity mre:

wt

Ts

ve 4

y SoeES ; gree <8; f . Sok ; ae : Meas . ee

». fm

Sin

eas «

<= se

vile

eae re wf? on

sae M ‘a,

if

is,

i)

? %

" i, ven, tom tee ee e * ¢

- x ret z bee %

am, vee =

* f,

z ous ae onde ate re > had

TF aPees oe tte Pi

er

(ez

+) Ng: : fe ' S37; eos, ese sa t ai Vhs Pepys Seg ‘S> a, Zine fy ‘s * i eee : és peri >< bre 33 += *; : att the a) Peary ot) z a fi: ti malt BF) i 4 a 7 3). fed A Ch yor heh Rigi ey atia! : | eA trpeyti tess hts ees oF lat aaa saline! fae oat ae PAGS Fie. £f EAU . Bh fe

“93s

Pare awe saa ‘* ~

ih

at. “~

we

zed

ey

we res >

i

¢ P rae

, ee

=

ond c tee Pe aye

~~ —" tas «

<>

a4 we ms ss

; +4 ¢

he »-

Se

= bias

fone shn as

a < ¥ aie wy . rs ~ ,

wh

~

a3

rite

2

aS

big ea nn rors

~

= : ort z= ;

NF CEH ESS At f ; ¢ dah pe ccde Ses tentoasrere tities See, setes ? {2 fact

a oe Ss

Reap eapedpshaetezestsseegeapyieteye ‘a}e 3 Ey EPA ST Fey eas ET ETE PE Saeh BPG 332: 389; Veigtie! tay : Best ttae rasta isis eistsipeiitns= ELE Satttanas th Rated AP REN TTR NE rae Poe deg tit Sale orate etap Savas re teganterteapgy tafe fe e4gotiaey “2 ; viet Bt dich TaLlyy : 2922 S3aa fey i ety 2 eg hit fasta 35 by ee i: ss 223 RS “¢42 Se 22 “p+ Sel aut SER he pest f Fa RAE Naga Mat ORCL a aE AS i gan co as art aac a tah ee ame es rea ete a SAE Tac S ASS eda assets ary sts (te, gate as adnate trond peat are eats TREE Pabeatags oom Sadan oto ente aan stite serge leadh age stg aise we 21 Ver a2 : ¢ « ; $5, %re = Pt Fy fia28 2 2453 Sra tet ites 2p 2%, 3 - " ! > 5S “. 73 :

caFt¢ Riad ‘na faye ts 3h) Usa e oye Sgy;43932: ARTS IESS oy estat Leb Pee, tts. “02s

+

foo >. Date tee ay he i) Ceeatlpits oie’ . ery nr rf Pipe Peete: Sates as 5 es Rute Be +h Biy33 a ead sifer ?. i prasey far 27s 3829} 25S ier. ¥ 33 +f ' } . tite | A ois ie e? ? : 2 ry ote . ¥ ra E 4 if >} ey, s 2 % « a 7 : - ») 2 : * Ps = fs appt El tte Nes hte : " wy Ara pan sear asiig a sare Att tetege 27x83 Par : BEY pang paen ging tags AL SE st 2: DaFbisten ; Pag tay aye: f THIEME RORLE ser epee SREY SF CIAL Fay, IRpiers: ‘a HN #22733! 3. re PTS RL ee ot S$ sae. we . bE Piste > aid : 74 Ma , Sin. +68 * i A ; as LEESTA A Meg tte shssthan ites en AP ip teats pie eded arSahe tts ARIAS fen E ta pape yg Danaea edt Tt seep eUarentfescenl alee esate aes hy peta el eel ay bens tettay sig foag faahd 3g 2598 320 : 42453 . i Y 2 % ar ae : as Le a. tba, tet, 2883 > 38. .f cy ba Ef west ek ang if e sa fe 4 : ‘y tee 5 A) ?,

"2, ae ee ~~ . ore

z ER Stith ee pSenr es ES UE aS REA Ce hier state tl PPT Ss) 422 HY Wastaen rit} 2392; > vei hi ve Py 253 : 7 ra

233

ci ¢) Seay : P] fbb g At 202 Pat To te os +) tae: Ss 2239 3%

"3 aH ar *@u3 font) hay. ee Tonk ee BA Syivtuedtteh pati! fata gsses seein OVE pe ites,

P 2

ties

*egcit 2 p25 tee > Pep 75.17 "4 BLP ed cities $47 RAL) ee ty, Mee HR agers Ld oH, 73f eat: Tatgede tate bests MS TPL . c b ; ; . @ Pee Hite Fi) ie Ls, Sild FT See Ly He, obese tly Bo ot" *O yO nee Pp Bai we £8 EMRE EEN aH ‘Sy “484533 Frefac tose at Sth SPELT i the here Pty ete pace Dre Bath ; radia “95,7248 bal 7 Fay: Lag Pare tte- “> 2 Rp oe - sie Ha ees Wy: a Aisi Pits atl Feed eet ttt SER UE FY RP stat a ag 4 ide lt Ye ay? zr bags Nyt pis ree Wares end Peary TREE ele ". far "«. -_s to ittng Wars feat "fi ey 2 . 8 on o~ ays 123 iP aR2? ; 2 ® ay > F : a sdeag: wr) Ps bt +

F 4 Bere ‘* y Ye Vos } beats 2D; , ox, > 2 : tee F > as ei dl d c 124. thaz. , Fey? » > ~ & ya epg Pras 2 FF aj Saar} é, *) ag ttre ba f Ty ote te, Fo, Us mH? me Pas r ia a2. °F 3. ye aie a ALES

a- > 2

; roee Pl ES,

. z 4 dy 4 ; ; . ba ; mA > 17 Rote 4 Fhe: #3; AY ; : #75 ELT PUA ears reiee 2 By diets a Mi tate atin H BSE | ; Toy Pape s ESSE Sy heata te she vey esce tease

. a eK ' rd 4 | fos ve M ne : MG PAST ratte: ; 3 ejeytegatseatstes att re a Phas 9

3 : = irgs! : Na x tt. he PP weigh 5 Stare? 4a35 35," tm) ¢ e. *y, « ott; , : : ait PrsPfoe ; = aa? eye BES? sity 923952 35 a a? ?* ay Se,” asst Tr) * : Pt #33. Pint >. &y a TT Bie: 4 ty ry rT} +r Sas thy ayo . 4 et by t Py ¢ 3 than tray ; Sel She say 4 . ey ; nitoogenstane * ‘pets t . Ys 3 ad tre ye Raa ser) y A > YK ws Otte? <r > paaty, tao cas ;

: = wane) > Rett Phat Pre o) Fay AB ae tiara Pe chee take

i ee eh Bq tt Tha, rh, “titer aa : a % slyrt STALL iby 43 9p) he, bre ie g Se AT .. thighs rehy Fair t aa, WV irtsUlitel Pea Te fo EET Ped tit faa NES CERT Baye ay os om ; eth, fag sty 4 s s , +e , Pals rete Serle shore: IPs ha “hahaa? a! wr a Dao. > eS y Bey harsh iP eit Pals PL to 4 Pn *a 7: é *¥) : Pd 0 es Paes Pee eer Baye + he we ? 2 rs ee "Seay Paveaas! 4 > e . iy? : : hh tes Py P39: wee "pa teed, hvize! tate ape ete on : a * Rane ; eA tire Vay. Fey > Be te SE SOE & > fe vy Fira,” ney ».! J a: seek) as.

NES APALL eae Tee * 7 Sear

mY aS

taf easy io yy

* : r we i . te fe b Ss t ; + CUyist Sy tae ay a ed. > N >a ot Pty ote, ip Phono whe es. e $ my Lt Al te Sim, te . £ 5 earea 4 S L7ap SS) Fs A ve , om _ bo Sle, ane? 0 RST as MIST ayte a, 2>. Seay; 2} 21 > 2) Pay Fyre thy, as

tat oe C02 ave 6 ae Rwasl's tr. ort & Py | ne Ry co Se reieha METPEL ys!) oot rey Hat eke f ye these Peters Pst ROTH ae >) a) ; . te 9,9 hy % Pe Dain Oy 2) eld te P Ye lcre > » . aya e Apes «

D

: ' 7 ** Ate tt kel | eR, " te eae ve tC ) eae ‘. A heyy : ; ‘+ h » & Thy : ts a > we v4 + ; Heaps ROTH ris : bs hy Ot : tale TS Paa hat (4p, : “hype Serr z ia Fre kh +4) rma pee ~* ve setae veutet? Wee b + , -

a

, ° ra ltrs > ts Lh t One ~ . te Pen*> Ody Fire * ¥ 4 . ; ve EYE OL TS ALOT is tak d) PRS) ln peered) Phe ba hese ha eeat Mi, Ninasdtartriy caters batpmcenacas Sede ng Natt aan anda Ua aratbanal urd enna tees seske Re neh eRe i> } " D . , . oe : LAS “7 Md he , ; we : EPPAIY NL: iy cher eats Ne REST eee TT eeL eT RAPE h Hie Le eho ian BO TOUL Se Paton 1) SES ealk BERR ON eg tee: is ray ‘eat rog eat Ritvah) tng etaee Teepe wet Uae Ee tiaeParatep sarc tmat aL ety S35) einlmgthe gM eRE IRM yerraneey Wray ttbopess swap tthy teat a cats e * ; . ee oss Rens ° . ~ hs 4 " te ho aA N aE ~ BYE etal ts Het aha dasaikerdioieewaahezet steal heme zton tah yyy tese nner etal? waT EE Pece M AD, 9 a> *eFaeny * tp tta ee 7 Me : . bs

A 7 are

I Radf, 44 Fa “a ad “84

a3. \ , -

WH LT ey rant thy eth Nites Pheetetcoy/ othe ited Bhat Sa hay nan, Tea ey tay ote! Partains gets PEF PPh age te NLR PS SAL Co ad Ee ad i "> ero et has” EP MLI Teel) 2 oes et ae OTS Ee meal Cate atl hat era 41) Kya: iii Mpa iat tite Mes - > a Pe ne olay > Pag rol Peony et >a . % 40) . \ ~ oy * OPH SS >, cnet anal Meth tag, hobs, Uae ab Sy fees

-

oudewet , “4 tO Cpt I/ “9 aveek. Jaf, bal f ECE Ae fs aes

2 a

1g has

# s re << Ne * , py oo ft -, 47 OS, Se

Tw AS ¥ wy an Ot us i of oft « Wok é‘ A. : fos y gee

PT ad

f oP dS -

to»

4

Pa

e 4

coe te

© Ott: 4 "Spe a , he «

st

er

isd

Len

oe °

Lae

ea) ica On ¢ . » » 7b: ts Pay Hig hd hahha Oey Peape cater len Bp, Thad? os. fhe n ? a9 S fet Fae Oe I) PEO iy dott mf 4 . eitsel stop the?

wth by ity, Pai : " tbs es bee Ten. Og ho tar hhys late, PALF vay ba, Poin F4 eae eontun Cave us FP ; eq etteient at . ener) A Mayehy iy tae wy tas iP, Sg he ees ee a ee eet Te rel te rte | Pe " Lf Peas PET Per Se ety TBs? Sod | hb a eee Oe r ebay Wane eA ers. Le . te FS hl > ik : oe» * ety Neds . - ‘a Pee. Seka | % Sin MCLE! a * of Pete ot Ae ohh 2 phe aT ae LETS ehsd eat OA Pea caf aa tg ble) Sater ood» 4

t ry tel DS 4 Me! Pie , #

5 + . TA TS ena sa, Yeiren ay oe : f » » VS ie |S Pe ' tiw,. Fey cohen, », re Rte fe eked. >on! Pas bas Den oe Ate sae [tert 899 Pap tt Stray as Lees) TAL eet en de * te Rey a hag ea os! hay by ee he? Ah terse op th tn [Pai 84p, ry! ; Se af tt. ¢ a. Y #2 Se, %¢, ty 8 rye! ; wel FRI, e ® ¥ » > a + ; 4 %, . * . ~ Sh, , ; . . tae oe t EAT thy Stiy ton 394. tt a) Dhan 4a.3P ae Staal, tte Pe TOP A Sha. Oty Mikkass. PRT Tae ne AES k PD gree, F

*

| Se rw ienaeeae’%

i iene. eo tele

g : * XK + , = = rea, ~ SS wks, ey, sd er 4 = : - 3 . . , ess ' ae . 4 F . { - 4 , rare .

ied

a

we

Pay

@.

te

e

wun

os

7 i g ;

TN

oo al

&”

=

Pa

e

“2

MODERN

MACHINE-SHOP PRACTICE

Pe oe ee ee

Bee OAT Ee

~

operetta aye ete Ne

Nia

VOL. I. MODERN MACHINE SHOP PRACTICE. FRONTISPIECE Seen tees taal

EK

ALE Oi ee CG tg Ni SS 4 : SSS : § i a DSS SSS iS oe vows ju 4 poems a re fy =

|

\LMSLTSIS SLES SA

= ——y S = 3 ge Fee SASSO SSNS

aN

WSS

Vem AAS (IEP. @ oN SS EA |

Stoo

apa oI —77 Le IO 1) : Speers ce el i

= So RK A

Goat

RE-HEATING RECEIVER FOR INTERMEDIATE CYLINTIR

ut

I, eT -_= A r ——— \\ Hoy 3 ——$—————" \ row =rrrcenn N Ch : I \ (Fe eZ) : STEAM PIPE

LOW PRESSURE CYLINDER

2 re ee HIGH PRESSURE CYLINDER

RE-HEATING RECEIVER FOR INTERMEDIATE CYLINDER

ar

RE-HEATING RECEIVER FOR

ose

LOW PRESSURE CYLINDER

J-

ENGRAVED BY BRADLEY & POATES, Yo

Fig. 3221.

BUCKEYE ENGINE.

a.

a ae

aes

eA

.

Bieta grey Ae gee Nee ee Tete

ou

fa

MODERN

MACHINE-SHOP PRACTICE

BY

JOSHUA ROSE, M.E.

ILLUSTRATED WITH NEARLY 4000 ENGRAVINGS

THIRD EDITION

FULLY REVISED AND WITH IMPORTANT ADDITIONS VOLUME IL.

NEW YORK

CHARLES SCRIBNER’S SONS 1916

COPYRIGHT, 1887, 1888, 189%. 1896 By CHARLES SCRIBNER’S SONS

CONTENTS,

VOLUME JI.

CHAPTER XXII.

Vhe Milling Machine ; Advantages possessed by........:.... mt The hand milling machine.... .......... 0... ccc cece ccc nce I Power milling machine.......... 02... ccc cere ccccccccee 2 Plain milling machine........ ee eet eee 2 Pratt & Whitney milling machine.......... 0.0... ccc eee eee 2 Brown & Sharpe universal milling machine................. 2to6 Attachments for milling machines....... ........ceeeceee 6, 7 Van Norman duplex milling machines ..............0e0e 000s 7 Vertical two-spindle open side milling machine .............. 8 Vertical single-spindle open side milling machine............ 8 Duplex milling machine for heavy work ...........-..eeeeee 8 Hilles & Jones Co.’s vertical milling machine................ 8 Bement, Miles & Co,’s vertical milling machine.............. 8 Kempsmith’s milling machine................ccccccecceccs 8

Side centre for foot stock... .... cc cece cee w cece eens cee 8 Pratt & Whitney Co.’s machines.......... ewewe eels is vavaCe eave 9 Face plate for work............. eit ialetar 6X Griese ave over etanecare 9 Beaman & Smith’s duplex machine...............ccececcece 9 Sweet’s traversing milling machine.... .............006 see «6 Strength of bed and resistance of strain........... we.ee. 9 DrVine “iss ihc bse Saas. ot ane ates Se ain ee 8 wes Wee S ESS 9 Adaptations of the machine... ........ccecccccccecceces 9 Open side milling machine —... 2... ee ee eee os aiaaicata la atatiae 10 Milling machine with vertical spindle...... dose ibe ecate Bie ewleoaone IO The Brainard Milling Machine.......... ccc eccc ec cccc cece £0) The various attachments of....... .. cicteceee econ Sewt aes 10 THE TOtary V1Se <a oul wewsiwexsincces Riera Waaryldwisi@-eregrere ears IO Universai head for gear cutting... ....cceccscceccecesece Il The head for cutting spirals.......... seus oe ae Scehanewaes 12 The cam cutting attachment. ...........cce csc cce ce ccncs 12 The Lipe Universal Milling Machine ................00000- I2 The f6€d MoOuvnS osc. 34.6) ww a savcawe was. shes cee bescnd 13 The index head of the adjustable centre rest.............. 14 The Universal Milling Machine for heavy work.............. 15 Construction of the driving gear and feed motion......... 15 Pratt & Whitney’s double spindle milling machine........... 16 Milling Cutters or Mills............. cece eee eee eee 16 to 24 Cutters with spiral teeth................ ee eee 17 Table of sizes of Brown and Sharpe standard cutters......... 17 Table of standard sizes of Brainard cutters..........0eseeee. 17 Face Cutters scsis: “Seve bee WiwawG ee one wireare s salsa ieee Ware eae 17 Twin cutters and right and left hand cutters..............0. 18 Advantages and disadvantages of face cutters ...........-+6. 18 Angular Cutters sso 06-4660 6. stares see teed Ww eeiereaw 9 a.6 See wie Ig The Brown and Sharpe patent cutters... .....ce-ceerecccece 19 Shank Cutters: <.c0c0-4 sac-25e ems ate 'es eal ers euiel erase ioe eucas eee IQ The direction of the feed for shank cutters........ -eseese 20 Applications of sizes... 2... esse ee ec eeecerscccece age QT Fly cutters... 2... 02 ccc ccc cece esscsre teen ee sees esses eenes 21 Different methods of making fly cutters. .......ceeeesscesees 21 Circular cutters, and holders for fly cutters.......... pdr eiarsxs 22 Matched cutters; methods of matching cutters.............. 23 Gang or composite cutters ; cutters with inserted teeth....... 24

Cutter Arbors....... Soba ceahiub shee HIG Gse oars. eerie emer unen as 25

MNOS cj.0ucceuariwa is cienee ieee oease ere haat 25 to 30 Comparison of the advantages of end milling, face milling, and

twit MUNDO seh iis ae i ease ee mnweiees 25

The length of feed in face milling. .........--..+seee0 ee 26 Cutting grooves in cylindrical work ...........-.. eee eeeeee a7 The crowding of grooving cutters and how to avoid it........ 27 The direction of the feed in cutting spiral grooves .......... 27 Setting angular grooving cutters ..........-sceeeeeereeerees 28 Cutting right and left hand grooves............. scngrelana aeoes 29 Fluting twist drills........ cee eee cence cerns reer ee 29 Finding the angle of the cutter in cutting spiral grooves...... 29 Producing different shaped grooves with the same cutter. ....29, 30 Holding work on the milling machine ; milling taper work.... 30 Chucks for Milling Machines.................. ee owees 31

VOL. II.—I-

Vertical Milling Machine. i PCOCCHCOOHC COCO ECOBO HEEB EEE wer Profiling Machine........ ........ eee cccccccecccce 31, 32 Grinding Machine, for milling CUty- @isicsiwece se 60 5ca% eas 32 to 37 Fixture for grinding parallel cuttese....ccccccccccecccccccce 32 Errors in grinding milling cutters... ...cccccccccccoccccecs 32 Grinding thin cutters............00. $66 66:6 404 6 60Siewdeeeeee’ 34 Grinding taper cutters ............. sie fr esiste's: Wibin sie eree eee wrace 33 Fixture for grinding taper work...........26 re ee ieee 93 Fixture for taper cutters and for face cutters....... ee 34 The position of the emery wheel and clearance on the cutter.. 35 Grinding the teeth of spiral cutters............. oer ee 36 Positions of emery wheels in cutter grinding as affecting the strength of the cutting edges........ errr re 36, 37 CHAPTER XXIII. EMERY WHEELS AND GRINDING MACHINERY.

Grinding Operations ; Classification of.....cccccccscccccccee 38

The qualifications of emery wheels........... eccscesccesese 39 Cements used in the manufacture of emery wheels......... -- 38 Grades of coarseness and fineness of emery wheels.......06.. 38 Grades of wheels and the work they are suitable for ...... .. 39 speeds of emery WheelSeiw i606. <sisaies Os inawese cseccess 39 Balancing emery wheels..........ccecescers seeecesee eoee 39 Emery Grinding Machines................... iiatewsenes 40 The Sellers drill grinding machine.......... Sssiareceiei Sa wie sie wa 4! The construction of the drill holding chuck.............. 41 Varying the drill position to suit the diameter of the drill.. 41 Errors of construction in ordinary drill grinding machines.... 41

Maintaining equal clearance from end to end of the cutting edge upon all sizes of drills....... ........ 4I, 42, 43, 44 Attachment for thinning the points of large twist drills....... 44 The front rake of twist drills. .........-..0+eeeee, er 44 Cutter Grinding machine ........... ccc eeece eens ce eeeee ne 45 Method:-Of USING 146594 905.08 auce beeen ea ee sw eee AA Grade OM emery “WNC s0s.4 5 sac nini eww ee Seite aie ohh cael 47 Drawing temper of cutter teeth ........ 0... . eee eee ween ee 47 Cautions. against ACCIGen tS i asc:5! <eesecewie ote 80.6 oie W902 Srne wae 47 Cleaning: emery Weel 600 se iisbi kag atn cents 65 Se eeeeee 47 Gringing: formed Cutter oui cies mses hwiae Sasha d eee. seme 47 Universal Cutter and Reamer grinder...............-...6- 48 CONnStHUCUIONIOL 44:5. sas cad Be wen, oe Sara ita wee eee See aes 48 Method: Of USNS 4 sepiiaw atin vetinisie caw acne sane mteaiees seated “AS Illustrations of work done ONn........ cee es cece ccerecves 48 to 50 Compound Swivel Head .............. ccc cee reece ere cees 51 Adaptation to fine-toothed mills or cutters..........eeeeeeees 51 Cautions about Clearances <.osecctwie aes aes as eee wwe eee’ 51 Formed Cutter grinding attachment. ..........cceccccceceees 52

CHAPTER XXIV. GEAR CUTTING MACHINES.

Gear Cutters—The Brainard Automatic..... err ere a OBS Plan view of the mechanism..........cccccesccccccccecs 53 Method of operating the cutter slide.... ........ ce eecee 53 The arrangement of the positive feed shipping motion..... 53 Arrangement and construction of the dividing mechanism.. 53

The Brainard half automatic gear cutting machine. ......... 54 Gear cutting engine with vertical cutter spindle.............. 54 Gear planing machine............ cece cer eeneecccecececes 54 Piat’s French gear cutting machine.... ..ceccccesecccees 54 to 59

Gould & Eberhardt’s rack cutting machines ..........ee-.0-. 59

Gould & Eberhardt’s automatic gear cutter........cceececess 59

Brown & Sharpe’s spur-gear cutting machine...........+..-- 59

General construction........ Side 2 Ase corae ene tastisatle se euler eusisute ss ere 60 Importance of cleanliness and lubrication ..........+eseseees 60

Adjustmentsofcutterspindle, feedscrew,indexwormandindicator 60 Placing the work.......sseeeees

vi CONTENTS.

PAGE

Use Of INGICAtOr ss<-.s wis sins e aed unin oe eset ides man wes sere'sien “00 Cutting several téeth at 0nC6 si. cic c ote Meee e Medeecoe dees 60 Brown & Sharpe’s automatic gear cutter ..............+-.05. 61 Bevel Gears, Designing and cutting............ 2. ....eee, 61 Method of finding diameters of .......... ccc cece cence cccns 61 Axles at right angles ........... gts iigiiaaia aguaxesraaeseuce mars t 61 Axles not at right anGles csc ecece cee ea we ewes eel Sees wcalesres 61 Forms and:sizes Of te@th we scc-c-swiiw duels naw a tewme eee sews 5 62 Cutting teeth sc.10:540-.tiee sawed seicwenas oboe tae se nae eae 62 Choice Of CUttels...cs5.ck.0h Ger ec eens eeeoeenGas enue ceeeaeds). “O02 Rounding bevel gear teeth CoCC CC OOOO OOOOH HOLE O CEE EC CEEOEESES 62 Cutting twice around.......... ‘66 W1SS S500 6900556 Cecscee ves “O02 Order for cutting bevel FCATS. cecccecccccvccvscvccvccceccccs 63 Operation of cutting teeth: ssisd io sve snes aca a wien < Sre Side nas 63 Cautions as to centring the cut... ... cc. c ecw cece eee ee wees 63 Cutting three times around....... coc ece eee e cence cece ences 63 Variations in. blanks..2: «cc einedeieweiwecdee an at oaaeeadeeee 63 Approximate methods of cutting teeth .......... 0... 0s eens 64

Gear Planers........... 0. cece cc ecces Se eer 64 Wearing. Of the tool. 24 scene iaecea exe wieewsatie Sa heeaws 64

WV OF (GOATS: o55i-0st acces da eeag esha ae eo 045en tenn sews’ 64 Circular pitch ........... ee ee ee ee er ee ae 64 Hobs and hobbing ........cee cece cee re een ees we ceeeeees 64 Rules for sizing worm wheel blanks ...... .... cece eceeees 65

SPiltal Gears 256th git cs cae sndeasene seuss Cee re 65 Calculations for pitch of spirals. ...... ccc cece cece cece eee 66 Calculations for circumference of spirals .........0.00- cece 66 USE OF CULLEIS#<s-d. note cay ua penardc, Mave weemyaieue vateae 66 Curious facts regarding spiral BEATS 0 eee eee eee reese eens 67

Gould & Eberhardt’s ‘‘ Victoria” gear cutters .... .......... 67 New type automatic gear cutter...........06. Sati anata 6 peaeel 67

Fellows’ gear shaping machine .......... cscs e cece eeeeee cence 67 PrAciple: Of {he Machines s4.59.c0u sense ee sks ewaeeN Cea sew aed 67 ELSHOPCTACION 42's, sats saree wees esi aventielenee Ace as eaiee te wei erenane 67

CUTLER IMOUION vc ceisd dso ers asda a eek Gees we ee aw RR 67 PNCOG IMO LON ec crat ee oie tats ecole mio artenardintere ore tare toh el Sea 67 Method of freeing cutter from WOK oc ce cee ceceeceeeeeeees 68 Method of holding work: i.itaweesdea saa sec 645-60s40's-0l4i0% 68

Colburn Keyway-cutting Machine .................00..00- 68 Detailed description -aincusnchenaaeicasneuseewes wees, Galas 69 PMNOLNEr TOR sabe Sa sihlern- ene ae cuiders wed Ser ede. be ee eee 70

Portable Key-seating Machine.................00ecceeeees 70

Morton Keyway-cutting Machine................00cce cee: 71 Patent key making attachment. .......... ccc eee ee cece eee 71

Colter and Key-seat Drilling Machine.................... 71

CHAPTER XXV. VISE WORK.

Definition of Vise Work........ 0... ccc cece eee eee een ete 72 Machinists’ hand hammers ..........cccccccee cecccceceees 72 Shapes of Nammer €yes aoc: asain Meee waco ete datunsae dears 72 The,proper method of putting handles in............. eee 72 Paning or pening hammers...... Terre rr rrr ye eeseseeveses 72 ONING OF PANG visi cai w:56:0 sis. 6 Sore Cine ones eA eae uaa be 72 Applications of pening to straighten work or refit it.......... 72 Riveting crank pins. . 1.06560. s cece cece seen eee eaceencceees 73

CIISGIS: co iaiceinie: Sites. Dueetuteaw seed eed anew eee 73 Forms of bar steel for chisels. .. 2.0... . cece cece ce eee tenn 73 The widths and thicknesses of the cutting ends of............ 74 Angles of the cutting edges Of......... ccc ese e rece ee ee eeeee 74 Shapes of the cutting edges Of........... cece cece ee ee er ee 74 Chisel Nolders 132 gs enwesonen ce tact ae sew ah edad tata telex 74 Cape OF CrOSS= (Uti. scceewscnseienonse cw hase s4/eee Desens 74 Round nosed......e.c.ceeceees bidineaesen tae eee eae eee 75 TG COW MOUtDER yd wisiary ers: iecsaey sonar ow arene Paige Gees 75 Curved:0r oll: STOOVG siaie'sis ses 9-4 dines 8 40 G.0tw Mees ewree-a sia as 76 The-diamond point: Chisel sis. 5 swiss s. sctiwaiw ee se 0 since wwe des 76 Applications of machinists’ chisels...............e0eeeeeeee: 76 AMENCAPDENLE! S CHISEL. caine tis widane aay aeiaseawennedun eins area awe 77 The angle of presentation of chisels..........c.eeeseeescees 77

Plane. Bladeso icc, otasscheutanne eetwa eae ia. tek wae nad oe 77

The form of, necessary to produce a given shape of moulding.. 77 “inding the shape of knives, plane blades, or cutters neces-

sary to produce given shapes upon the work....... 78 to 83

Scale for marking out the necessary shapes of moulding knives. 83 ETNISELUMENS TON «tac scateed sehen e nae eaeuawe tae Sa aiees. OG ONS spss nurs doce ayesha eared es arate a eee e alta eee wie oes 85 shapes cf Mle teeths sic. Sentara salsa date Mer aw eae eee 85 ACG CU POF MILES eiases.avi ease ores tekea a erase daciave tek ietee.6 Gatevoend 85 Sizes and kinds of flat files... ... 0... cece cece ce ee cee eee 86 rOubet: Ales sxssu. sds cwe see oa ads HO os Nae aha ca anes ste. OF Rasps, the kinds and cut of............. cece cece ec eeees sate, 288 1} DG names Ol: fleS..26cn scan tia ein otek eh actheanu Se4e% 88, 89 Round, half-round, and three- “square GIES o..ta-sb sew wle esas go Knife files, cross files, reaper files, tumbler files.............. gI Whe selection: Of fleS saciesnasiw we Gane e-s: aw acdieeloas eee%re x3 gI Putting handles:on, Hlesis.v6/«é-0o.s0 sues sides eceesenes S46 Meee eae 92 Instruction on holding files........... 20. cee ce cnc ccee scene g2

lim AICS i sea atas cases (aeev awe Mew nwee arelaha guna ogiat aavacs Q2

PAGE The warping of files. .....cccccccccccccccrcsecccecscesenes 93 Using bent files ....cccccccccccccsccccccccccccecescescess 93 Cross filing. . rere er ee eee 93 Draw filing .. ee ee ee ee ee ee ee 94 Cleaning files... ...0eee. secu iGtiGi Cine ue nsesieaeeees 94 Filing out round corners.........-. Sbeaie walle erase eater ere Naar 95 Using round files.........4.. Git eulcuGae seetweeG eee Santee 95 Files for soft metals. ........cccercccccscccees shies ce teenie 6s ae 95 Resharpening files......... Lcttecar Sawer ae acaaan tetas. ea sieeu see 95 The Sand Blast process .......... er rr ee re ee 96

Red Marking for vise work. .......cseeceees ceccccsceccccece 96

Hack Saw ooosi todas ieee werent eeeew ee theese ween ee 97

Screw Drivers and their proper eee scndnt are Re araeee Onl Sees 97

Scrapers for true surfaces..........06. ieeeeteeoe es nia asteeet 97 Angles for the facets of scrapers........ Sere ee 97 Various forms of Scrapers... ...scccccscecssccccccs Seaeegeus 97

FREAIMNETS .5c5s 86nd 56S Vee icges COR ees aea hassles Soe diows cose ees 98 The spacing of reamer teeth..........ceceeccccceceees scene 98 Odd and even numbers of reamer teeth............cccccceecs 98 Adjustable reamers....... ccc cece cece cen cc cn ce accccececes 98 Taper reamers.......sccccc cece cc cee tere cece asec seeeceees 99 Reamers for framing .........-ccceereccseccecsecveccccees 99 Half-round reamers........ eer a Te Te re ET ee re 99 Square reame’s,......cesccec cece c cee esseeusvecee eaatereaes 99

CHAPTER XXVI. VISE WORK (Contir ued).

Examples in Vise Work..........-.sseeeees Arora sundaes 100 to 113 The use of chisels......... cc cece ec sree eres eoesenccceereee 100 File cutting.......... ccc cece cece ce ccc en cece cecceeceseees 100 Cutting key seats......... ccccccceeccecccccceccrccccesees IO Sinking feathers in shafts..........ecceccccccrcccececececes IOI Methods of securing feathers... .......eeeseeerereccccces ... 102 Filing up a double eye or knuckle JOIN 36s ccaeewe's gis owes 103 Filing pins. 2.2... eee ccc cee ene secre etree eee c cece eneeaee 103 Blocks for filing pins. .........cseccersccesccrccceccceecens 104 Hand ViS6 asics 66 Sse SOSA HEN WRSS WOR ere: SR ON oe Rees eS 104 Filing bolt heads and nuts........ eer ee er ee 104, 105 Making outside calipers ....... cece reece ceccceecccccces 105, 106 Fitting keys........... 1c cece ce we cen c cece crs e teeter snceces 107 Cutting keyways by hand... ...ceceeeee cers cece ce ceeececees 108 Cutting out keyways by drifts... .... eee eee cece erect eee eees 109 Forms of driftS.......cccccccccccecscccesccneneesececceces 109 Methods of using drifts... .... cece ee eeecceoee a ee ree 109 Templates. .......cccccrccsccevccseces ee ee TIO Making male and female templates. gg sliseisie d watecet’ eoceeee LIOtO 112

CHAPTER XXVII. VISE WORK (Continued).

Examples 1 in Vise Works........scccccessceseese aaers 113 to 127 ‘The various form of connecting rods........... ore ee 113 Solid ended connecting rods... ....seceeeerescececeeeeeeee: 113 Clip ended connecting rod. 1. 1... cece eee eee cere eee eens 114 Strap ended connecting rod......00 seecescceececereees ves TIS Double gibbed connecting rod........-... sade variareuers cad hae 115 Locomotive connecting rod ....- ceeeeeeceeeces cence ceeee. 115 Bolted connecting rod StrapS..... ees cess seen ee ceeeeeeeees 115 Marine engine connecting TOO") ead bain sg het ampreeeeee theese 116 Tapered connecting rod ends. and their advantages .......-... 117 Stepped connecting rod straps and their advantages........... I17 Fitting up connecting rods... ces ee ee ee ee ee eee eereeee 117, 119 Welding up stub ends of connecting rods... ....s.eceeeeeeeee 118 Aligning welded connecting rods ........... cece ccee ce ceeee 118 Fitting on connecting rod straps... ........ 5 cece cee cw ee eeee 119 Filing out connecting rod keyways......... aR eat ore mi atane-s IIg Pitting the: keys: and -C1Dsic goes ein urs ayeraias cpa boo wie erence ads TIg Fitting connecting rod brasses to their straps............. 120, 122 The joint faces of connecting rod straps ....... ...-eseeeee- I2! Disadvantages of joints left open to take up the wear.......... 121

Obviating this disadvantage. .......... ccc cece rene ee eee 121 Marking the lengths of connecting rods..........eeeeeeeeeee 122 Fitting up a fork end connecting rod.............. sede icta wed Gye 122 Aligning fork end connecting rods..........esseeseeeeeeeeee 123 Repairing connecting rods.......... ce cece cece eee e eee reees 124 Setting connecting rod brasses topethericcs as cvadc seakalaes xox 125 Lining up connecting rod brasses...........cee cee ee cece eees 126 Adjusting the lengths of connecting rods............eeeeceee. 126 Setting up the keys of connecting rods..........ceeeeeeeecees 126 Shapes of the crowns of brasseS....... ccs cccccceececcsceces 127 Fitting up a link Motion si... coud sews Ves dew ee ieN wee es 127

Templates for filing the link slot............. a bemines ie 127

Case-hardening Saengdiet. okra sdRerteernd mats Vaca uOS ee eee 128 to 133 Sheehan’s case-hardening aa wore eer ee TT eee 128 Preparing Work: 108 6 oiie seca. decree Seine 6 8 tes ew ieee Solas oe Se Ss 129 Setting work allerici2s tte en eee eee eeeeeanes ewes 129 Fitting brasses to pillow blocks or axle boxes .. ......+.++0.- + ¥30

CONTENTS. vii ea PAGE Bedding brasses ..........eeseeees cat aconahis itis sion eae ise 132 Taking up the lost motion when setting the valve ...... seeee 174 The proper shape for the patterns of brasses........ ..2...0. 132 Measuring the valve lead........ beeen een renee eee eaeeres 174 Originating a True Plane.